Types of Motivation Diagram
Extrinsic Motivation and its Types
How to Motivate Yourself
Test: What motivates you at work?
Motivation is powerful. When it’s present, it helps us do hard things. When it’s absent, even simple things seem like a stretch. But not all motivation is created equal. According to incentive theory, motivation is divided into two different types; each type is then represented by a number of subtypes.
The two major types of motivation are:
- and extrinsic.
Each type can have its own advantages and disadvantages, but both can be certainly effective.
Intrinsic motivation comes from within, i.e. intrinsic factors are responsible for one’s behavior. Here are some good examples of intrinsic motives:
- desire to achieve,
- social contact,
- sense of competence,
- sense of progress,
- social status,
- fear of failure,
While this list is mostly positive, there is a few negative intrinsic factors such as fear of failure and anxiety. Although fear of failure and anxiety will definitely get you do things, this isn’t the healthiest way to achieve your goals. Beside these negative factors, intrinsic type of motivation is generally seen as more favorable. The advantages of intrinsic motivation are as follows:
- intrinsic motivation tends to last longer;
- intrinsic motivation is always self-sustaining;
- intrinsically motivated people feel more in control.
Its only disadvantage is that when intrinsic motivation isn’t naturally present, it’s hard to promote it from outside. Having said that, a study published in Journal of Sport Psychology in 1984 found that positive feedback tends to increase intrinsic motivation while negative feedback tends to diminish it.
Extrinsic motivation: as the name suggests, this type of motivation comes from external sources. Money, praise, other types of rewards, and even pain and fear of punishment are all examples of extrinsic motivation. Extrinsically motivated people do things for the sake of reward or out of fear of negative consequences — they do not do it because it’s fun or because it helps them learn and grow.
Although the goals are extrinsic, some self-determination (or autonomy) may still be present. In terms of autonomy, extrinsic motivation is divided into four subtypes:
- externally regulated behavior where an individual is motivated solely by the reward or punishment;
- introjected regulated behavior where an individual is motivated by the feeling of guilt, e.g., you need to work in order to be able to take care of your elderly parents;
- motivation through identification where an individual acknowledges the importance of activity despite the fact that she does not necessarily enjoy it;
- integrated regulation of behavior where goals or regulations become a part of one’s beliefs. For example, you may be involved in social activism because you believe that certain things need to be done, and you are willing to do that despite discomfort and sacrifice. Although this type of motivation is highly autonomous, it is still classified as extrinsic type, because you are motivated by goals and outcomes that are extrinsic in their nature.
So what does this all mean to you? How can you use this to increase your own productivity and reach your goals?
First, one of the most important things you should realize is that you may be intrinsically motivated for some things and extrinsically motivated for some other things. For example, when it comes to fitness, you may be intrinsically motivated because you find exercise enjoyable; but when it comes to your career, however, you may be extrinsically motivated because you work only because you need money to support your lifestyle.
Second, whenever you don’t feel like doing stuff, you deal with the lack of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is hard, but not impossible, to develop, and you are the best person for this task. Look at the diagram above and try to find what type of intrinsic motivation could possibly charge you with energy and desire to act. Remember: positive feedback increases intrinsic motivation while negative feedback diminishes it. Think of ways you could get more positive feedback and avoid critics for now.
Alternatively, you can figure out a way to use extrinsic motivation to your advantage. Can you reward yourself for “good behavior”? Can you ask a friend or a family member to monitor your behavior and hold you accountable if you don’t do whatever you need to do? Depending on your individual characteristics, they could hold you accountable in several ways:
- demanding your progress reports;
- applying penalties where you are punished in some way if you don’t do your work, e.g., financial penalties or additional chores;
- rewarding you in some way for your progress.
Finally, don’t forget about the power of integrated regulation of behavior. Find your “why” that is powerful enough to motivate you.
Work Motivation Test
Now that you understand the theory behind classification of different types of motivation, why not to take a quick test designed to find what motivates you in your career pursuits. Like other tests on this site, this test is not a substitute for professional advice and is provided for educational and entertainment purposes only.
The test consists of 28 statements/replies to the question: “Why do you work?” You must read all the statements and check all that applies. At the end you will find out how you score on a scale from zero to 100 for the following types of motives:
- Communication motives: in this context, scoring high in communication motives means that socializing and being around others are the primary reasons why you work;
- Avoidance motives: you force yourself to work because you fear negative consequences;
- Prestige motives: prestige, others’ approval and respect are your main motivators;
- Professional motives: you truly enjoy your work and work for work’s sake;
- Self-realization motives: you are interested in fulfilling your potential and self-discovery;
- Learning motives: you simply like to learn and your work creates more opportunities for learning;
- Social motives: you are motivated by a need to contribute to society.
So, let’s begin!
Question: Why do you work?
Answer: I work because…
…I enjoy my work.
…I want to climb the corporate ladder.
…I want to feel competent.
…I want to make the most of my skills and talents.
…I want to keep up with my friends.
…I like the people I work with.
…I want to be the best in my field.
…I like to meet new people.
…my work helps me learn more about myself.
…if I quit, people will think I am a loser.
…I want to be a part of something.
…I don’t want to lag behind my colleagues who may be promoted to higher positions.
…I want to be a good member of society.
…I want to grow.
…I work because there is no other alternatives.
…I seek knowledge.
…I enjoy learning new things.
…the more experience I have, the better.
…I want to feel useful.
…I want to be professional and savvy.
…my work gives me an opportunity to express myself.
…my work is part of who I am.
…I want to be respected.
…I seek others’ approval.
…I feel a need to contribute to society.
…my work offers me a lot of socializing opportunities.
…I work because my future social status depends on it.
…I work to be able to compete more effectively.
Your results will appear here.
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